A 2015 study published in Evidenced Based Complimentary and Alternative Medicine fed mice a diet containing 10 percent elk velvet extract (EVA) to test its effects on physical growth and bone development.  Researchers measured the mice’s body weights, blood chemistry, kidney and testis/ovary functions, and bone traits weekly. They found that “Mean body weights were higher in the EVA group at 4–8 weeks in males, and at 5 weeks of age in females.” The mice fed EVA also experienced changes in kidney function and increased femoral bone length by 5 weeks old. Levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) increased in EVA group.
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An ethanolic extract has been noted to, following oral ingestion of 100mg/kg, suppress nitric oxide secretion from peritoneal macrophages while stimulating phagocytic activity secondary to calcium mobilization,[19] and has been noted to increase macrophage cell count in a concentration dependent manner up to 171.5% at 150mcg/mL with a water extract (and 132.4% for splenocytes).[18] This immunostimulation appears to be related to phosphatidylcholine molecules with saturated fatty acid acyl chains[20] and is thought to underlie an anti-infective effect in mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus when Velvet Antler is ingested at 500mg/kg.[18]
A study conducted in rowers given 560mg Velvet Root for 10 weeks of training has failed to find improvements in rowing performance or other parameters of strength (bench press and leg press) in both sexes.[28] 1350mg of Velvet Antler twice daily (daily dose of 2,700mg) for 10 weeks was noted to increase leg strength (assessed via leg press) more than placebo with no differences in the bench press; this study had a 44% dropout rate and conclusions that can be drawn are limited.[27]
New Zealand research reports that although the mechanism is unknown, deer antler velvet shows strong anti-inflammatory effects. Recent clinical tests suggest oral ingestion of glycosaminoglycan-peptide complex, or components such as chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine sulfate — both found in deer antler velvet — may help stimulate cartilage repair.
Velvet Antler is a supplement derived from powdered or crushed antlers, most commonly from deer (and thus referred to as Deer Velvet Antler) although Elk have also been used. They have been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine.[1] The base of the antler is referred to as Cervus (in reference to deers), Lu Jiao Pan, Zhen Zhu Pan, as well as Lu Hua Pan and appears to have been traditionally used for cardiovascular disease, gynecological problems, immunological deficiencies, blood cancers, tissue repair and health promotion.[1] The specific part used is the antler base; when the antler is sawed off the base temporarily remains until the regeneration of the new antler pushes it off which occurrs occasionally in the wild. Traditional usage involves using the base and macerating it in wine or decocting it with water for oral consumption.[1]
In an experiment (Gerard, 2004) conducted to study muscle damage and repair, 20 males ran for 35 minutes on a downhill treadmill. The participants, who were not trained runners, were pre-treated with deer antler velvet or a placebo 14 days prior to the run. The subjected treated with deer velvet showed that their creatine kinase levels, a marker of muscle damage, was significantly lower than the control group. Also, muscle soreness on average was reported to be gone 24 hours before subjects in control.
Euricoma Longfolia: A shrub found in Southeast Asia that is said by some native cultures to enhance male virility. It has been used unofficially to treat fever, high blood pressure, bone pain, and syphilis, and the limited clinical data about euricoma longfolia that exists suggests it may possibly increase testosterone levels. There is no data about the long-term effects of euricoma longfolia consumption.
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According to an article published by Business Insider, between 20 to 40 percent of professional MLB and NFL athletes admit to purchasing and using deer antler spray (also called “deer antler velvet”). They hope to benefit from its performing-enhancing effects. (1) Some famous athletes turn to deer antler spray in hopes of promoting growth of new tissue cells or gaining strength due to more easily putting on lean muscle mass.
In an ovalbumin sensitized mouse model, 4 weeks of Velvet Antler at 2.5-10mg total (weight of mice not given, assuming 20g this equals 125-500mg/kg or 10-40mg/kg for humans) was able to reduce total Immunoglobulin E (IgE) and Ovalbumin-specific IgE at 14, 21, and 28 days.[21] When challenged with methacholine and subsequently having their airway power measured, it appeared that Velvet Antler exert anti-asthmatic effects in regards to allergies.[21] 

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As this supplement is derived from 'deer', the two most commonly used species of deer in mainland China include the Sika deer Cervus nippon Temminck and Red Deer Cervus elaphus Linnaeus; these species may be relevant.[1] 'Farming' of deers for antlers includes raising deer and sawing off the antlers under analgesia,[2][3] the annual yeild appears to be 120-150 tonnes and deer are not usually killed as antlers are capable of full regeneration.[3]
My name is Michael Morabe and I’ve been an avid and addict of sand and indoor volleyball. I’m 27 years old and after getting back into volleyball 2 years ago, I realized I needed to lose weight. I just played more and more, shedding weight pretty rapidly, but after I lost about 35-40 pounds, I couldn’t do much more without starting to diet. The added problem was my recovery after playing so much during a week whether it be pick up or tournaments.

An acute dose of 2,000mg/kg Deer Velvet Antler to rats (human equivalent dose of 320mg/kg) has failed to show toxic signs over 14 subsequent days of observation, and a 90 day trial with daily dosing of 1,000mg/kg did not show any significant toxicological symptoms of haemotological signs; a decrease in liver weight was noted in males, but under histological examination it appeared to be benign.[38] Another rat toxicological study using 10% of the diet as Deer Velvet Antler during gestation and after birth noted that there were no apparent teratogenic effects on the rat pups and that serum AST (indicative of liver damage) was actually decreased 50% relative to control with no effect on γ-GT (another liver enzyme).[30]
Anti-Aging, Longevity, Combats Senility: No one likes the down-side of aging-the fatigue, senility, confusion, tiredness and a sense that your body is winding down before stopping entirely. A large part of aging is the increase in inflammatory responses our body has to food, exertion and slowed tissue repair. Deer Antler Velvet reduces inflammation, a major cause of senility, pain and the challenges of aging gracefully.
IGF-1 is currently on the World Anti-Doping Agency’s prohibited list due to how it gives athletes an unfair advantage in terms of building strength and muscle mass. (7) However, it’s still legal to use supplements that may provide IGF-1 or similar effects. Most of the studies that show positive results from using deer antler supplements have used high doses. And some have tested the product on animals (mice or rats) rather than humans.
S.W.A.T.S. Fitness and Performance was a dietary supplement company that sold deer antler spray and other products. The owners began distributing their products to NCAA and NFL athletes in 2008.[19] The controversy initially started in March 30, 2009 when Alabama athletic officials sent a cease-and-desist letter to the company's owner that stated: "Refrain from using current student-athletes to endorse products. Refrain from contacting current student-athletes. Refrain from giving or selling products to current student-athletes." [25] The letter was then sent again in 2012.[26]

Even more intriguing is how the stags manage to regrow their antlers. Scientists have found stem cells at the bases of antlers’essentially ‘blank’ cells that can develop into many different types of cell, such as a skin cell or a cartilage cell. If they could find out what triggers the stem cells and controls their development into antlers, the knowledge could be applied to the regeneration of human limbs and organs. Scientists know that the shedding is initiated by a fall in the hormone testosterone, a change linked to an increase in day length, and they think oestrogen may be a key cellular regulator. However, much more research on a molecular level is required to unravel what is clearly an intricate process.

In Asia, velvet antler is dried and sold as slices, or as a powder which may be boiled in water, usually with other herbs and ingredients, and consumed as a medicinal soup.[6] In the traditional commercial trade of Korea and China, whole stick antler velvet is divided into three sections based upon their supposed properties. Although there is an absence of uniform standardization, these sections are known as the wax piece (uppers or tips), the blood piece (middles), and the bone piece (bottoms): the wax piece may be marketed as a growth tonic for children, the blood piece supposedly for joint and bone health, and the bone piece supposedly for calcium deficiency and geriatric needs.[2][5][9] Early commercial activity in Russia between the 1930s and 1980s led to the production of an alcohol extract from deer antler velvet marketed under the Russian drug trade name Pantocrin (also pantocrine or pantokrin).[10][11]
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