An ethanolic extract has been noted to, following oral ingestion of 100mg/kg, suppress nitric oxide secretion from peritoneal macrophages while stimulating phagocytic activity secondary to calcium mobilization,[19] and has been noted to increase macrophage cell count in a concentration dependent manner up to 171.5% at 150mcg/mL with a water extract (and 132.4% for splenocytes).[18] This immunostimulation appears to be related to phosphatidylcholine molecules with saturated fatty acid acyl chains[20] and is thought to underlie an anti-infective effect in mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus when Velvet Antler is ingested at 500mg/kg.[18]

One study in men given 1.5g Velvet Antler for 11 weeks noted that intake of Velvet Antler was associated with a greater improvement in peak torque (30+/-21% more than baseline vs. placebo increasing 13+/-15%) and average power (21+/-19% vs. 7+/-12%) as assessed by leg extension; the authors noted that other parameters suggestive of power improvement (such as endocrine improvements or erythropoesis) did not occur and noted that replication is needed.[26] The lack of aerobic improvement noted in this study is contrasted by another study using 2,700mg of Velvet Antler (two doses of 1,350mg daily for 10 weeks) which improved VO2 max by 9.8%, although this study had a remarkably high dropout rate of 44% which precludes conclusions that can be drawn.[27]

L-Arginine: An amino acid usually found in red meats that is important for the body’s ability to manufacture proteins. L-Arginine has been used to treat conditions like high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, blocked arteries, and erectile dysfunction. L-Arginine is safe for most people, however it should not be taken by women that are pregnant or breastfeeding.