One double-blind study published in the International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism tested whether or not deer antler velvet powder or extract had an impact on aerobic performance, endurance and “trainability of muscular strength” compared to a placebo. The subjects were adult males. They were given either a placebo, or deer antler extract or powder supplementation over a  10-week period while undergoing a strength-building routine. The men were measured for muscular strength, endurance, and VO2max before and after using deer antler. These results were determined by measuring circulating levels of testosterone, insulin-like growth factor, erythropoietin, red cell mass, plasma volume, and total blood volume.
Unfortunately, the potential problems with IGF would seem to negate any of these theoretical benefits.  It has been shown that improper use of hormones such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and human growth hormone may increase the risk for development of prostate cancer or promote the growth of existing prostate cancer by raising IGF-1 levels.  Therefore, men who are taking supplements with IGF in it (or those that raise IGF levels) could theoretically be putting themselves at an increased risk for prostate cancer.  Again, it hasn’t been rigorously studied so it’s impossible to know for sure, but if you have any risk factors for prostate cancer, it’s probably best to avoid taking this supplement.  
This is a full spectrum extraction of one of the most profound substances in the anti-aging and longevity category. Deer Antler Essence is a premiere tonic formulation for the rejuvenation of Yin Essence, Yang Essence, and blood. Deer Antler is a prized tonic in the East that provides deep nourishment of Jing Essence. Considered a Yang tonic, it provides physical, sexual, and creative energy by nourishing the root energy of the body. It also is extremely powerful for nourishing bone marrow and building blood.

Studies have found that deer antlers themselves contain a highly concentrated amount of essential trace minerals, fatty acids, amino acids and growth factors that can all support the immune system. This includes the gastrointestinal tract, where the majority of the immune system is found. Antlers contain minerals such as: calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, potassium and sodium in addition to numerous minor components.
Research has been conducted on the potential use of deer antler velvet for healing of wounds. In Russia (Arapov, 1969), Pantocrin was administered to patients with surgical and internal wounds. The study reported that there were a number of positive effects, including the normalization of arterial pressure, reduction in surgical complications, and becoming active quicker. In tests on rats (Wang, 1985), bone fracture repair was accelerated. A recent study by Bubenik found that antler helped heal epidermal wounds in rats. In another study by Takikawa, et al., researchers reported observing new bone formation following experimental whiplash injuries in rabbits. Pretreatment in rats reduced cell degradation and improved recovery times from extreme temperature and electric shock exposure. 
According to modern research, deer antler velvet has shown gonadotropic activity. Studies by both Fisher and Wang indicate that deer antler velvet may increase testosterone levels in men and can help prevent some conditions associated with aging. The estrogen hormone most affected by deer antler velvet is estradiol. Estradiol is a precursor to testosterone.
Have you been searching for a supplement that can help you elevate your workouts and physical performance to the next level? Perhaps you've considered using Deer Antler Velvet before but aren't really sure what it is or which supplement is right for you. Look no further – our Deer Antler Spray is made with only the finest ingredients available on the market, allowing us to produce the best product available, at an amazing cost.
As an international entertainer, it is important for me to keep up with my physical appearance and overall health. Those attributes contribute to longer lasting energy while performing and good stage presence. My physical appearance lacked from being overweight, which in turn effected my energy while performing. I fought with both for many years. This fight caused me to lose out on booking for shows, sponsorships and photo shoots.

I would like to express my deepest gratitude for IGF-1. I am 54 years old and until now I have suffered with chronic fatigue, depression and insomnia. After being on IGF-1 for less than 1 month, my energy levels are back up and improving more everyday. I once took 3 naps per day just to function, I do not need naps anymore. I once needed prescription sleeps aids, now I sleep all night long without medication, thanks to IGF-1. It is hard to put into words all that IGF-1 is doing for me, so I will just say I feel like a new man with vitality that I have not felt in 25 years.
Russian and Japanese researchers have conducted experiments using deer antler extract and found that it appears to lower blood pressure in both human subjects and laboratory animals. A series of clinical case studies (Albov, 1969) were conducted in which the effects of Pantocrin on cardiac patients were assessed. In one test involving 32 subjects with high blood pressure caused by cardiac disease, early onset menopause or obesity, blood pressure was lowered in 81% of patients. In another study involving 13 patients with hypotension caused by disorders of heart muscle activity, blood pressure was lowered for 84% of patients.
I have not felt much differently since I started taking the deer antler however I did notice that when I do the arm bike I can do it faster and longer without weakness. Now you would say so big deal. For me that is a huge difference that I am tracking. I NEVER was good on the arm bike even when I was in shape it felt more labored. I am horribly out of shape for me and yet I can do this with comfortable effort. I also have taken the REM product Anna Nova health offers. Now this is where I DO notice a difference again but much more that the daily effect. My sleep has regulated to where most nights I have been able to sleep at least 5-6hrs straight. I have done that in the past. What I notice is that my body actually FEELS rested like i went into a deeper sleep. I have tried everything to sleep. Some things that are suppose to help actually work the opposite. Most all drugs have horrible effects on me and I NEVER wake up rested. I wake up foggy doppy and irritable-if I sleep. I have to say something about this works. Maybe it effects my body chemistry in manner it needs. I don’t know but its not because I WANT it to work. I have taken all this stuff tried all this stuff expecting failure. I have not slept well my whole life. Since the head injury even if I do sleep I’m not rested nor do I feel that my body relaxes. Since I have taken this after two weeks I noticed a big difference. 5hrs for most people is horrible- for me its good 6 is great and my ideal sleep. I am staying on it for another couple months to see if I feel or notice any other differences. As far as helping “heal” my body WIM hof cold exposure works the best for my brain so far. Brain injury/neck injury people are different from those without. We have dysfunctional nerves neurotransmitters and path waves that cause things to happen that we need to find other ways to fix. Drs just don’t listen and pay attention to people who are in tune with their bodies. Its too bad cause they could learn a lot from us.
In herbal combinations, deer velvet is used to improve athletic performance; to improve eyesight and hearing; to reduce stress; and to treat arthritis, osteoporosis, “tired blood” (anemia), women’s reproductive disorders including premenstrual syndrome (PMS), ED, and skin conditions. Herbal combinations including deer velvet are also used to increase blood circulation to the brain and to delay or reduce signs of aging such as tissue, bone, and muscle degeneration, and declining mental skills.
I looked for a solution for years. Then I heard the buzz about Nutronics Labs IGF-1 Plus and its positive impact to ones health and its effectiveness on fat loss. I took the Nutronics IGF-1 Plus Maximum formula, and the search for a solution came to a halt. I was tipping the scale at an overweight 200lbs and with the assistance of IGF-1 Plus Max, I achieved a long life time goal of a lean 178lbs in 6wks.

However, if you’ve never taken deer antler product before, chances are you’re considering trying it because you have a specific concern or problem and someone has suggested you try Deer Antler Velvet, or you saw something on the Internet and here you are. You’re wondering if this is the right product, or whether you should keep looking, right? So, here are the Top 10 Benefits of Deer Antler Velvet.
When antlers fall off, they leave wounds that heal quickly, without forming a scar. Researchers have found that velvet antler contains substances that encourage healing, and could be of use to humans. Of particular interest are 3 hormones known to promote growth of skin tissue: insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). In a recent study, an ointment made from velvet antler, containing these compounds, enhanced healing when applied to the skin of rats. IGF-1 was a hot topic in the media in the winter of 2013 when a football player, Ray Lewis, was accused of using a banned spray containing IGF-1.
Almost everyone can benefit from deer antler velvet. Our customers take deer antler velvet for many reasons - to support general health, to restore an ailing body, or to improve physical function and performance. Our client list consists of: physicians, naturopath doctors, chiropractors, physical therapists and surgeons; firefighters, police officers and soldiers; construction workers, miners and other laborers; professional athletes in football, soccer, baseball, basketball, hockey, and mixed martial arts.
For a long time velvet antler is recognized as a powerful tonic that naturally stimulates us with a clean and non-fatiguing energy. Not like coffee or energy drinks. This effect can be subtle, but its long term consumption benefits are profound in that we can more easily overcome and adapt to daily stress. Many types of stress depending on who we are as individuals. How much to take is important and talked about in the dosage section. Having the capability of increased resistance to physical stress is a major use to everyone. 
Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) is an anabolic molecule which appears to induce growth of the antlers themselves,[31][32] although testosterone may be the primary growth factor.[33] Currently, there is no evidence that serum IGF-1 is increased following Velvet Antler ingestion with one study using 1.5g of Velvet Antler for 11 weeks failing to increase serum IGF-1.[26]
I still coach baseball, and I have a son who is in college and is looking forward to the MLB if it is in the cards for him, it is, but he needs this college for the maturing process. This led me to making that first purchase of Deer Antler Spray. I am not on those awful doctor narcotics anymore, and my left side pain is gone totally! I wish that I could send a picture of my side because the swelling is there, not as much as it used to be though, and absolutely no pain! I have the ‘skinny complex’, and when I started this program I was 6′ 1″ and 137.5 pounds. My mean (average weight) is 175. I am back up to 165 being as we just received our second order recently; it doesn’t take long for my 1,000 mph metabolism to slow down due to this Antler Spray.
Deer antler spray — a supplement commonly used in the fitness and sports industries that has a long history of use in Eastern medicine — is pretty much as strange as it sounds. Derived from the tissue found inside deer antlers, it’s reported to work by providing IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor), a natural growth hormone found inside the human body that has potential to increase muscle mass and support recovery from injuries.

Velvet antler has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that classifies many similar substances from a variety of species under the simplified Chinese name 鹿茸; (pinyin Lu Rong) and the commercial name Cervi Cornu Pantorichum.[citation needed] The two common species used within the TCM system are sika deer and red deer which are thought to be useful for treating yang deficiency syndromes.[6][7][8]
Deer antler velvet is rich in insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) which is a growth hormone produced naturally in the liver as a response to human growth hormone (HGH) stimulation. This is a key factor in how deer antler velvet can help to promote muscle growth. IGF-1 works on the body by promoting the growth of healthy, lean skeletal muscles. This growth of healthy muscle mass can be influenced by IGF-1's tendency to increase muscle protein and muscle DNA content. There is evidence to suggest that IGF-1 acts on muscle tissue by promoting protein synthesis and the proliferation of satellite cells, both of which result in skeletal muscle growth due to the enlargement of the muscle cells.
Data is limited. Two studies (n=40 and 168) investigating the efficacy of elk velvet antler supplementation on rheumatoid arthritis found no effect, while a study conducted in people with osteoarthritis (n=53) reported symptomatic relief among participants. The small sample sizes may result in the trials being underpowered to detect effects.25, 28, 29
I recently ordered IGF-1 Plus Maximum in order to gain results from my physical therapy workouts. Since using this product, I am not only able to do harder workouts, but I also have increased muscle mass. Besides these benefits I have experienced improvement in my wound healing! Areas that repeatedly break down are showing increased healing like never before. My hands, which are severely scarred, have more flexibility. I look forward to the many benefits that may come from using IGF-1. Thank you Rick Lentini!
Strength and Bodybuilding: If you’re already a bodybuilder Deer Antler Velvet is as much a part of what the sport is about as protein drinks and workouts. The reason muscles get bigger, harder and stronger is because weight training and bodybuilding tears them down through a micro shredding of the fibers-and then builds them back up. Deer Antler Velvet has been proven in scientific studies to promote faster healing, faster tissue growth, faster nerve tissue, cartilage and muscle repair. You don’t change your workout. You just heal faster and better after each workout.
IGF-1 is currently on the World Anti-Doping Agency’s prohibited list due to how it gives athletes an unfair advantage in terms of building strength and muscle mass. (7) However, it’s still legal to use supplements that may provide IGF-1 or similar effects. Most of the studies that show positive results from using deer antler supplements have used high doses. And some have tested the product on animals (mice or rats) rather than humans.
A study (Yudin and Dobyrakov, 1974) on the effect of deer antler velvet extract on the static load-bearing capacity of subjects found that those who took the extract increased the time of work by 2-4 seconds compared to the control group. In tests of dynamic work using a veloergometer, the subjects who took the extract increased the work output 4 to 5 times more than the control group.
Powdered velvet antler is available in capsule form from health shops. As a general tonic and to fight fatigue, the recommended dosage is usually 1 or 2 capsules (250 to 350 milligrams each) per day. For conditions such as osteoarthritis, higher doses may be used under supervision of a health practitioner. The effects of velvet antler gradually accumulate and are typically seen 8 to 12 weeks.
I have not felt much differently since I started taking the deer antler however I did notice that when I do the arm bike I can do it faster and longer without weakness. Now you would say so big deal. For me that is a huge difference that I am tracking. I NEVER was good on the arm bike even when I was in shape it felt more labored. I am horribly out of shape for me and yet I can do this with comfortable effort. I also have taken the REM product Anna Nova health offers. Now this is where I DO notice a difference again but much more that the daily effect. My sleep has regulated to where most nights I have been able to sleep at least 5-6hrs straight. I have done that in the past. What I notice is that my body actually FEELS rested like i went into a deeper sleep. I have tried everything to sleep. Some things that are suppose to help actually work the opposite. Most all drugs have horrible effects on me and I NEVER wake up rested. I wake up foggy doppy and irritable-if I sleep. I have to say something about this works. Maybe it effects my body chemistry in manner it needs. I don’t know but its not because I WANT it to work. I have taken all this stuff tried all this stuff expecting failure. I have not slept well my whole life. Since the head injury even if I do sleep I’m not rested nor do I feel that my body relaxes. Since I have taken this after two weeks I noticed a big difference. 5hrs for most people is horrible- for me its good 6 is great and my ideal sleep. I am staying on it for another couple months to see if I feel or notice any other differences. As far as helping “heal” my body WIM hof cold exposure works the best for my brain so far. Brain injury/neck injury people are different from those without. We have dysfunctional nerves neurotransmitters and path waves that cause things to happen that we need to find other ways to fix. Drs just don’t listen and pay attention to people who are in tune with their bodies. Its too bad cause they could learn a lot from us.
In an ovalbumin sensitized mouse model, 4 weeks of Velvet Antler at 2.5-10mg total (weight of mice not given, assuming 20g this equals 125-500mg/kg or 10-40mg/kg for humans) was able to reduce total Immunoglobulin E (IgE) and Ovalbumin-specific IgE at 14, 21, and 28 days.[21] When challenged with methacholine and subsequently having their airway power measured, it appeared that Velvet Antler exert anti-asthmatic effects in regards to allergies.[21] 
Tribulus: An extract taken from the Mediterranean puncture vine that some cultures believe to have medicinal values. There is little clinical data surrounding the bio-physical effects of tribulus, however some people take it to enhance athletic performance, sexual ability, and improve circulation. Not much is known about the long-term consequences of tribulus consumption, however there are some indications that it may potentially lead to prostate issues in some men.
Aphrodisiac* - For a long time the alcohol extract has been used to strengthen reproductive organ function, but modern studies of deer antler velvet results are inconclusive concerning women and from men. Although some people do report benefit in intimacy, this may be because of the performance, blood circulation and stress adaptation effects.* So in other words, if your supplement doesn't have the alcohol extract in it don't expect the benefits of supplements made with it.*

Speed Exercise Recovery - Depends which way you look at, but in general it really depends on why you would need it. If you think this works like synthetic anabolics that helps you recover quicker and train more you are grossly mistaken. But if you have joint issues, or desire the benefits of increased blood flow assisting and conversion in the liver, or need a boost to tissue regeneration than this is smarter thinking on your part.


(Adult) Shake well before use. As a dietary supplement, take 6 sprays under tongue once per day. Hold for 20 seconds before swallowing for best results. Caution: Do not use if outer seal is broken. Not intended for individuals under the age of 18. Consult your health care provider prior to use if you are pregnant or nursing, have a medical condition, or when taking any medication. * CONTAINS: SOY. * This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Contains 25,000 NG. of IGF-1, IGF-2 and other Growth Factors
Although the site states that this product shouldn’t cause ill side effects, most western medical practitioners would dissuade you from taking this because the components found in deer antlers haven’t been approved by the FDA. More importantly, IGF-1 has been proven unstable. So, it’s best to speak to your physician, especially when you’re currently taking other forms of medication.

According to an article published by Business Insider, between 20 to 40 percent of professional MLB and NFL athletes admit to purchasing and using deer antler spray (also called “deer antler velvet”). They hope to benefit from its performing-enhancing effects. (1) Some famous athletes turn to deer antler spray in hopes of promoting growth of new tissue cells or gaining strength due to more easily putting on lean muscle mass.
Deer Antler Velvet Extract: This moss-like substance has been used in Chinese medicine for years and is thought to contain a number of compounds that can help with tissue regeneration and repair. The antlers are removed safely and without harm to the animal, and the velvet is thought to have applications for improving circulation, strengthening bone density, and improving male libido. There is very little clinical data regarding the effects of deer velvet, and not much is known about its side effects. Some conditions that may potentially be related to deer antler velvet include:
Aphrodisiac* - For a long time the alcohol extract has been used to strengthen reproductive organ function, but modern studies of deer antler velvet results are inconclusive concerning women and from men. Although some people do report benefit in intimacy, this may be because of the performance, blood circulation and stress adaptation effects.* So in other words, if your supplement doesn't have the alcohol extract in it don't expect the benefits of supplements made with it.*
Deer antler, or more specifically ‘velvet antler”which refers to the soft, newly grown antler before it hardens, not just the velvet skin’has been used in Chinese medicine for 2000 years. Often prescribed as a tonic, it is reputed to boost the immune system, improve stamina and reduce swelling. It is also prescribed to promote wound healing and strengthen bones and said to be an aphrodisiac and to enhance fertility. In China, velvet antler is seen as second only to ginseng in its restorative powers.
I was first introduced to and started using IGF-1 Plus™ in July of 1999. I made it part of my daily regiment originally to increase my stamina and build my muscles while burning body fat at the same time (which I was informed this would help me accomplish). I am 35 years old and exercise for about an hour or so at a time, 3 to 4 times a week. It is now the end of February 2000 and I’m extremely impressed at the results! People have commented on my appearance and I have been reaching new heights in the gym that I though were only obtainable by using drugs like steroids (which I never considered taking due to the unwanted side effects). However IGF-1 has not only increased my strength and endurance, but has given me much more in ways that I had not anticipated! For instance, the person who shared this with me had no idea that I have arthritis. I would wake up in the morning and my joints would ache severely (especially my wrists and elbows) until eleven o’clock or noon. Now, although it took me a few weeks to start really noticing my improvements in the gym, it didn’t take but 3 -4 days for me to take notice of the fact that my morning arthritis pains were completely gone. The only time the pain has come back is when I ran out of the spray and couldn’t get a hold of any for a couple of weeks because I was out of town vacationing in Florida. Now I try to have at least a couple extra bottles on hand! Also, my hair stylist of 17 years had noticed that I had lost a significant amount of gray on my head and asked if I was coloring my hair. I’ll make sure I never run out of this amazing formula again!!!
The message was from Neema Yazdani. Some of you might recognize Neema’s name from my most recent book, The Men’s Health Big Book: Getting Abs. Neema was a test subject that epitomized the great results you could receive with the program. As a guy that had tried just about everything during the last 12 years, Neema dropped body fat and added muscle with a simpler approach included in the book.
I was first introduced to and started using IGF-1 Plus™ in July of 1999. I made it part of my daily regiment originally to increase my stamina and build my muscles while burning body fat at the same time (which I was informed this would help me accomplish). I am 35 years old and exercise for about an hour or so at a time, 3 to 4 times a week. It is now the end of February 2000 and I’m extremely impressed at the results! People have commented on my appearance and I have been reaching new heights in the gym that I though were only obtainable by using drugs like steroids (which I never considered taking due to the unwanted side effects). However IGF-1 has not only increased my strength and endurance, but has given me much more in ways that I had not anticipated! For instance, the person who shared this with me had no idea that I have arthritis. I would wake up in the morning and my joints would ache severely (especially my wrists and elbows) until eleven o’clock or noon. Now, although it took me a few weeks to start really noticing my improvements in the gym, it didn’t take but 3 -4 days for me to take notice of the fact that my morning arthritis pains were completely gone. The only time the pain has come back is when I ran out of the spray and couldn’t get a hold of any for a couple of weeks because I was out of town vacationing in Florida. Now I try to have at least a couple extra bottles on hand! Also, my hair stylist of 17 years had noticed that I had lost a significant amount of gray on my head and asked if I was coloring my hair. I’ll make sure I never run out of this amazing formula again!!!
Bottom line: Rogol says it’s “extremely unlikely” that deer antler in any form could offer athletes a boost. “Deer antlers do contain growth factors,” he explains. But it’s a huge leap of faith to talk about an extract doing anything beneficial for human beings, whether it’s slowing aging, developing muscle, or repairing tendons, he adds. Opinions like Rogol’s are one reason the FDA and anti-doping agencies haven’t yet taken steps to ban deer antler products that contain IGF-1.
On January 30, 2013, Vijay Singh professional PGA Tour golfer was caught unaware and openly admitted to the personal use of deer antler spray which contained a banned substance at the time.[22] A week later the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) lifted the ban on deer antler spray, but with urgency, "Deer Antler Velvet Spray may contain IGF-1 and WADA recommends therefore that athletes be extremely vigilant with this supplement because it could lead to a positive test." [23] The consensus opinion of leading endocrinologists concerning any purported claims and benefits "is simply that there is far too little of the substance in even the purest forms of the spray to make any difference," [9] and "there is no medically valid way to deliver IGF-1 orally or in a spray." [24]
On January 30, 2013, Vijay Singh professional PGA Tour golfer was caught unaware and openly admitted to the personal use of deer antler spray which contained a banned substance at the time.[22] A week later the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) lifted the ban on deer antler spray, but with urgency, "Deer Antler Velvet Spray may contain IGF-1 and WADA recommends therefore that athletes be extremely vigilant with this supplement because it could lead to a positive test." [23] The consensus opinion of leading endocrinologists concerning any purported claims and benefits "is simply that there is far too little of the substance in even the purest forms of the spray to make any difference," [9] and "there is no medically valid way to deliver IGF-1 orally or in a spray." [24]
Velvet Antler is a supplement derived from powdered or crushed antlers, most commonly from deer (and thus referred to as Deer Velvet Antler) although Elk have also been used. They have been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine.[1] The base of the antler is referred to as Cervus (in reference to deers), Lu Jiao Pan, Zhen Zhu Pan, as well as Lu Hua Pan and appears to have been traditionally used for cardiovascular disease, gynecological problems, immunological deficiencies, blood cancers, tissue repair and health promotion.[1] The specific part used is the antler base; when the antler is sawed off the base temporarily remains until the regeneration of the new antler pushes it off which occurrs occasionally in the wild. Traditional usage involves using the base and macerating it in wine or decocting it with water for oral consumption.[1]
Nutronics Labs patented delivery system allows faster delivery and longer duration of nutrient action, making it superior over tablets, capsules and powder products. The lipo gastric delivery system uses nanoparticles that are delivered into the bloodstream more rapidly, where they can be better absorbed and utilized without breaking down in the liver, as with many other products.
"I am 60 years old and had polio when I was six months old. Throughout my childhood I had 7 orthopedic surgeries to correct the damage leftover by polio to my left hip, leg and foot. I am battle scarred and a Post Polio Syndrome Survivor. I cannot praise your product enough! Its difficult for me to walk. I normally use a battery powered scooter in malls and airports. The least amount of physical exertion walking and standing creates days of agony afterwards. This past Saturday I walked the mall, went for a movie and dinner. I was active all day and well into the night without tiring. I kept waiting for the intense painful spasms and muscle contractions from my polio atrophied muscles in the left leg and also my hips. Usually late at night is when the pain and spasms are the most intense. But guess what? I am not hurting anywhere near the level I use too. I am not fatigued. I used Antler Farm's Deer Antler Velvet a couple of years ago when traveling to Machu Picchu, Peru. I am still amazed I climbed the ancient Inca Trail unaided with just my cane. Antler Farm's Deer Antler Velvet has improved my quality of life significantly."*
Shake bottle before each use. Take 14 drops under the tongue 3 times per day. Hold for 20 seconds before swallowing for best results. This allows the formula to penetrate through your endocrine glands. Then the active molecules are then released directly into your bloodstream. This is how Nutronics Labs' liposome technology is able to deliver an enhanced bioavailability!
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